THE SCIENCE OF TODAY IS THE TECHNOLOGY OF TOMORROW
Grade 6 Science Unit Plans for the year 2018-2019 Resource: Fusion by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Life Science (Biology) Cells and Heredity
Unit 1: Cells This unit focuses on the big idea that all organisms are made up of one or more cells. Topic The Characteristics of Cells: What are living things made of? Objective To explain the components of the scientific theory of cells Content The Cell The Cell Theory Two Types of Cells ( Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) Essential Questions What is a cell? Why are most cells small? What is the cell theory? What parts do all cells have in common? What are the two types of cells? Vocabulary Cell, organism, cell membrane, cytoplasm, organelle, nucleus, prokaryote, eukaryote Activities Modelling a Cell to know how organelles are suspended in cytoplasm Investigating Cell Size to know how the surface-area-to-volume ratio of a cell would affect the diffusion of materials into the cells Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Chemistry of Life: What are the building blocks of organisms? Objective To discuss the chemical makeup of living things Content Atoms and Molecules Molecules for Life Processes Essential Questions What are atoms and molecules? What are some important types of molecules in cells? What are phospholipids? Why is water important? Vocabulary Atom, molecule, lipid, protein carbohydrate, nucleic acid, phospholipid Activities Analyzing Cell Components (oil and water activity) Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Cell Structure and Function: What are the different parts that make up a cell? Objective To compare the structure and function of cell parts in plant and animal cells Content Eukaryotic Cells Parts of Eukaryotic Cells Plant and Animal Cells Essential Questions What are the characteristics of eukaryotic cells? What organelles are found in plant and animal cells? What additional parts are found in plant cells? What additional part is found in animal cells? Vocabulary Cytoskeleton, mitochondrion, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, cell wall, vacuole, chloroplast lysosome Activities Making a 3-D Cell Model of Animal and Plant Cell to analyze the organelles that make it function Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Levels of Cellular Organization: How are living things organized? Objective To describe the different levels of organization in living things Content Cells to Organism Cellular Structure and Function Systems Work Together Essential Questions How are living things organized? What is the connection between structure and function? What tasks do systems perform to meet the needs of cells? Vocabulary Organism, tissue, organ, organ system, structure, function Activities From Leaf to Cell to observe the sequence of cell to tissue to organ Building a city to know how is an organism similar to a city. Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Homeostasis and Cell Processes: How do organisms maintain homeostasis? Objective To explain the important processes that organisms undergo to maintain stable internal conditions Content Homeostasis in Cells Homeostasis in Organisms Essential Questions What is homeostasis? How do cells divide? How do cells exchange materials? How do organisms maintain homeostasis? Vocabulary Homeostasis, photosynthesis , cellular respiration, mitosis, passive transport, diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis Activities Active and Passive Transport Finding examples of homeostasis in organisms Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: How do cells get and use energy? Objective To explain how cells capture and release energy Content Cells Need Energy Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Essential Questions How do the cells in an organism function? How do plant cells make food? How do cells get energy from food? How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration connected? Vocabulary Photosynthesis, cellular respiration, chlorophyll Activities Modelling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Unit 2. Reproduction and Heredity This unit focuses on the big idea that characteristics from parents are passed to offspring in predictable ways.
Topic Mitosis: How do cells divide? Objective To relate the process of mitosis to its functions in single-celled and multicellular organisms Content Why Cells Divide Genetic Material and Cell Division Mitosis Essential Questions Why do cells divide? What happens to genetic material during cell division? What are the stages of the cell cycle? What are the phases of mitosis? Vocabulary DNA, Chromosomes, cell cycle, interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Meiosis: How do cells divide for sexual reproduction? Objective To describe the process of Meiosis and its role in sexual reproduction Content Sex Cells Meiosis Steps of Meiosis Meiosis vs. Mitosis Essential Questions How do sex cells differ from body cells? Why do organisms need sex cells? How are sex cells made? What are the stages of meiosis? How does meiosis compare to mitosis? Vocabulary Homologous, chromosomes, meiosis Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Sexual and Asexual Reproduction: How do organisms reproduce? Objective To describe asexual and sexual reproduction and list the advantages and disadvantages of each Content Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Comparing Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Essential Questions What is asexual reproduction? How do organisms reproduce asexually? What is sexual reproduction? What are the advantages of each type of reproduction? Vocabulary Asexual, Reproduction, Sexual, Reproduction, fertilization Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Heredity: How are traits inherited? Objective To analyze the inheritance of traits in individuals Content Mendel’s Work DNA’s Role in Inheritance Genes, Traits, and Characteristics Essential Questions What is heredity? What did Gregor Mendel discover about heredity? How are traits inherited? What are the exceptions to complete dominance? Vocabulary Heredity, Gene, Allele, Genotype, Phenotype, Dominant, Recessive, incomplete dominance, codominance Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Punnett Squares and Pedigrees: How are patterns of inheritance studied? Objective To explain how patterns of heredity can be predicted by Punnett Squares and Pedigrees Content Punnett Squares Pedigrees Essential Questions How are Punnett squares used to predict patterns of heredity? How can a Punnett square be used to make predictions about offspring? How can a pedigree trace a trait through generations? Vocabulary Punnett square, Probability, Ratio, pedigree Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic DNA Structure and Function: What is DNA? Objective To describe the structure and main functions of DNA Content DNA Structure DNA Replication Mutations DNA Transcription and Translation Essential Questions What is DNA? How was DNA discovered? What does DNA look like? How are copies of DNA made? What are mutations? What is the role of DNA and RNA in building protein? Vocabulary DNA, Nucleotide, Replication, Mutation, RNA, ribosome Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Biotechnology: How does biotechnology impact our world? Objective To explain how biotechnology impacts human life and the world around us Content Applications of Biotechnology Biotechnology and Society Essential Questions What is biotechnology? What are some applications of biotechnology? How does biotechnology impact our world? Vocabulary Biotechnology, artificial selection, genetic engineering, clone Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Life Science The Diversity of Living Things
Unit 1: Life Over Time This unit focuses on the types and characteristics of organisms change over time.
Topic Introduction to Living Things: What are living things? Objective To describe the necessities of life and the characteristics of living things Content Characteristics of Living Things Needs of Living Things Essential Questions What characteristics do living things share? What do living things need to survive? How do living things get food? Vocabulary cell, stimulus, homeostasis, DNA, sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: What is the theory of evolution by natural selection? Objective To describe the role of genetic and environmental factors in the theory of evolution by natural selection Content Darwin’s Observations Natural Selection Extinction and Environmental Change Essential Questions What did Darwin observe? What other ideas influenced Darwin? What are the four parts of natural selection? How do species change over time? What happens to species as the environment changes? Vocabulary evolution, artificial selection, natural selection, variation, mutation, adaptation, extinction Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Evidence of Evolution: What evidence supports the theory of evolution? Objective To describe the evidence that supports the theory of evolution by natural selection Content Fossil Evidence Structural Evidence Genetic Evidence Embryological Evidence Essential Questions How do fossils form? How do fossils show change over time? What other evidence supports evolution? How do we know organisms are related? Vocabulary fossil, fossil record Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic The History of Life on Earth: How has life on Earth changed over time? Objective To describe evolution of life on Earth, using the geologic time scale Content Fossil Record Geologic Time Scale The Precambrian and the Paleozoic Eras The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Essential Questions How do we learn about ancient life? What can we learn from fossils? What is the geologic time scale? What defined Precambrian time? What defined the Paleozoic era? What defined the Mesozoic era? What defines the Cenozoic era? Vocabulary fossil, fossil record, extinction, geologic time scale Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Classification of Living Things: How are organisms classified? Objective To describe how living things can be grouped by shared characteristics Content Classification Domains, Kingdoms, and Levels Branching Diagrams and Dichotomous Keys Essential Questions Why do we classify livings? How do scientists know living things are related? How are living things named? What are the levels of classification? What are the three domains? What are the four kingdoms in Eukarya? How do classification systems change over time? How do branching diagrams show classification relationships? How can organisms be identified? Vocabulary species, genus, domain, bacteria, archaea, eukarya, Protista, Fungi, plantae, Animalia Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Unit 2: Earth’s Organisms This unit focuses on the big idea that organisms can be characterized by their structures, by the way they grow and reproduce, and by the ways they interact with their environment.
Topic Archaea, Bacteria, and Viruses: What are micro organisms? Objective To describe the characteristics of archaea, bacteria, and viruses and explain how they reproduce Content Characteristics of Archaea and Bacteria How Archaea and Bacteria Reproduce Characteristics of Viruses How Viruses Replicate Essential Questions What is a prokaryote? What are some characteristics of archaea? What are some characteristics of bacteria? How do bacteria reproduce? How do bacteria exchange DNA? What are some characteristics of Viruses? Are viruses living? How do viruses replicate? Vocabulary Bacteria, Archaea, binary fission, virus, host Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Protists and Fungi: What are protists and Fungi? Objective To describe the characteristics of protists and fungi, and explain how they grow and reproduce Content Characteristics of Protists Reproduction and Diversity in Protists Characteristics of Fungi Reproduction and Diversity of Fungi Essential Questions What are some characteristics of protists? How can protists reproduce? What are different kinds of protists? What are some characteristics of fungi? How can fungi reproduce? What are some kinds of fungi? How do fungi form partnership? Vocabulary protista, gamete, spore, algae, fungi, hyphae, mycorrhiza, lichen Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Introduction to Plants: What are plants? Objective To list the characteristics of plants and explain plant classification Content Characteristics of Plants Structures and Functions of Plants Classification of Plants Essential Questions What are the characteristics of plants? What are the two main groups of plants? How are seedless nonvascular plants classified? How are seedless vascular plants classified? How are seed plants classified? Vocabulary Producers, photosynthesis, chlorophyll, vascular system, seed, pollen, gymnosperm, angiosperm Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Plant Processes: How do plants stay alive? Objective To de scribe the processes through which plants obtain energy, reproduce, and respond to their environment Content Plants and Energy Plant Reproduction Plant Responses Essential Questions How do plants obtain and use energy? What are the phases of a plant’s life cycle? How do seedless plants reproduce? How do seed plants reproduce? How do flowering plants reproduce? How do plants reproduce asexually? What are some ways plants respond to their environment? Vocabulary Cellular respiration, pollination, stamen, pistil, stimulus, transpiration, tropism, dormant Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Introduction to Animals: What are animals? Objective To explain the characteristics of animals and describe some different kinds of animals Content Animal Characteristics Animal Diversity Invertebrates Vertebrates Essential Questions What characteristics do animals share? What groups make up the diversity of animals? What are some different kinds of invertebrates? What are some different kinds of vertebrates? Vocabulary Consumer, invertebrate, exoskeleton, vertebrate, endoskeleton Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Animal Behavior: What are some different animal behaviors? Objective To describe some behaviors that help animals survive and reproduce Content Animal Behavior Survival Behaviors Reproductive and seasonal Behaviors Social Behaviors Essential Questions What is behavior? How does behavior develop? What behaviors help animals survive? What behaviors help animals reproduce successfully? What behaviors help animals survive seasonal change? What are some social animal behaviors? Vocabulary Stimulus, innate behavior, learned behavior, territory, migration, hibernation, estivation, social behavior Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Physical Science (Physics) Motion, Forces, and Energy
Unit 1: Motion and Forces This unit focuses on the big idea that unbalanced forces cause changes in the motion of objects, and these changes can be predicted and described.
Topic Motion and Speed: How are distance, time and speed related? Objective To analyze how distance, time, and speed are related Content Motion Speed Distance-Time Graph Velocity Essential Questions How can you describe the location of an object? What is motion? What is speed? What is average speed? How is average speed calculated? How is constant speed graphed? How are changing speeds graphed? What is velocity? Vocabulary position, speed, reference point, motion, vector, velocity Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Acceleration: How does motion change? Objective To analyze how acceleration is related to time and velocity Content Acceleration Acceleration as a vector Essential Questions How do we measure changing velocity? How is average acceleration calculated? How can accelerating objects change velocity? Vocabulary acceleration, centripetal acceleration Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Forces: How do forces affect motion? Objective To describe different types of forces and explain the effect force has on motion Content Introduction to forces Net Force Newton’s Laws Essential Questions What is a force and how does it act on an object? What happens when multiple forces act on an object? What is Newton’s First Law of Motion? What is Newton’s Second Law of Motion? What is Newton’s Third Law of Motion? Vocabulary force, net force, inertia Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Gravity and Motion: How do objects move under the influence of gravity? Objective To describe the effect that gravity, including Earth’s gravity, has on matter Content Gravity Law of Universal Gravitation Orbits Essential Questions What is gravity? What determines the force of gravity? How does gravity keep objects in orbit? Vocabulary gravity, free fall, orbit Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Fluids and Pressure: What happens when fluids exert pressure? Objective To explain why fluids exert pressure and how the resulting pressure causes motion and the buoyant force Content Introduction to Pressure and Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Water Pressure Pressure and Fluid Flow Buoyant Force Essential Questions What are fluids? Why do fluids exert pressure? What are two familiar fluids that exert pressure? How does depth affect fluid pressure? What are some examples of fluid motion due to pressure? What can happen as a result of weight and buoyant force? What affects the density of an object? Vocabulary fluid, pressure, pascal, atmospheric pressure, buoyant force, Archimedes principal Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Physical Science (Chemistry) Matter and Energy
Unit 1: Atoms and the Periodic Table This unit focuses on the big idea that the atomic structure of an element determines the properties of the element and determines how the element interacts with other elements.
Topic The Atom: How do we know what parts make up the atom? Objective To describe how the development of the atomic theory has led to the modern understanding of the atom and its parts Content The Atom Development of the Atomic Theory Parts of the Atom Essential Questions What makes up matter? Who developed the atomic theory? What is the current atomic theory? What are the parts of an atom? How can we describe atoms? Vocabulary Atom, electron, nucleus, proton, neutron, electron cloud, atomic number, mass number Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic The Periodic Table: How are elements arranged on the periodic table? Objective To describe the relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the properties of those elements Content Information on the Periodic Table The arrangement of elements on the periodic table Essential Questions What are elements? How are the elements organized? The Periodic Table of Elements What information is contained in each square on the periodic table? How are the elements arranged on the periodic table? Vocabulary periodic table, chemical symbol, average atomic mass, metal, non-metal, metalloid, group, period Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Electrons and Chemical Bonding: How do atoms interact with each other? Objective To use atomic models to predict whether atoms can form bonds Content Chemical Bonds and Chemical Changes Atomic Models Chemical Bonds and Valence Electrons Essential Questions How do atoms join together? What happens to atoms during chemical changes? What do different atom models show? What are valence electrons? How does the periodic table show the number of valence electrons? Why do atoms form bonds? Vocabulary chemical bond, valence electron Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding: How can atoms join together? Objective To describe the interactions between atoms in ionic, covalent, and metallic bonding Content Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Metallic Bonds Essential Questions What is an ion? How does an ionic bond form? What properties do most ionic compounds share? What is a covalent bond? What is a molecule? What properties do most covalent compounds share? How does a metallic bond form? What properties do most metallic compounds share? Vocabulary ion, ionic bond, covalent bond, metallic bond, molecule Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Unit 2: Interactions of Matter This unit focuses on the big idea that in chemical reactions, matter and energy are conserved, while in nuclear reactions matter is converted into energy.
Topic Chemical Reactions: How are chemical reactions modeled? Objective To use balanced chemical equations to model chemical reactions Content Chemical Reactions Chemical equations Energy Reaction Rates Essential Questions What are the signs of a chemical reaction? How are chemical reactions modeled? How do chemical equations show the law of conservation of mass? What happens to energy during chemical reactions? What affects the rates of reactions? Vocabulary chemical reaction, chemical formula, chemical equation, reactant, product, law of conservation of mass, endothermic reaction, exothermic reaction, law of conservation of energy Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Organic Chemistry: How does Carbon form molecules? Objective To describe how carbon forms many of the molecules essential to modern materials and living thing Content The Chemistry of Carbon Classes of organic compounds Essential Questions Why does carbon form many different compounds? How does carbon form molecules? What information does a chemical formula contain? What are the types of structural formula? Where are organic compounds found? What other elements make up organic compounds? How are organic compounds classified? What other structures can organic compounds form? Vocabulary organic compound, hydrocarbon, organic acid, carbohydrate, polymer Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Nuclear Reactions: How do nuclear reactions differ from chemical reactions? Objective To distinguish nuclear reactions from chemical reactions and compare the types of nuclear reactions Content Nuclear Reactions Radioactive Decay Fission Fusion Essential Questions What happens during a nuclear reaction? What are the types of radioactive decay? How does radioactive decay affect matter? How is radioactive decay used? What is nuclear fission? How are mass and energy conserved? What is the source of nuclear power? How do nuclear power plants work? How can we evaluate nuclear power? What is fusion? How can we evaluate power from fusion? Vocabulary nuclear reaction, isotope, radioactive decay, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Unit 3: Solutions, Acids, and Bases This unit focuses on the big idea that the properties of a mixture change when substances in the mixture dissolve to form a solution.
Topic Solutions: What is a Solution? Objective To summarize the characteristics of a solution Content Solutions Concentrations Solubility Essential Questions What is a solution? What are the two parts of a solution? How can the concentration of a solution vary? What factors affect solubility? What helps solids dissolve faster in liquids? Vocabulary Solution, solute, solvent, concentration, solubility Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Acids, Bases, and Salts: What are the properties of acids, bases, and salts? Objective To understand the physical and chemical properties of acids, bases, and salts, and how these chemicals are commonly used Content Interactions of Acids and Bases in Water Properties of Acids and Bases Salts Uses of Acids, Bases, and Salts Essential Questions What are acids and bases? How do acids and bases interact with water? What is the difference between strong and week acids and bases? What are the physical properties of acids? What are some chemical properties of acids? What are the physical properties of bases? What are some chemical properties of bases? What are some examples of salts? Vocabulary Acid, base, salt, neutralization reaction Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review
Topic Measuring PH: What is PH a measure of? Objective To describe the PH scale and how it is used to classify a solution as either acidic, or neutral Content The PH Scale Acids and Bases in Our World Essential Questions What is the PH scale? What is the PH of some common solutions? How is PH measured? What role does PH play in the environment? What causes acid rain? What are the effects of acid rain? Where does PH play an important role in the human body? Vocabulary PH Activities Assessment Monitoring Progress Summative Assessment Ongoing Review CREATE A